The management schools are the different theories proposed by prominent authors that give support to the principles and methods that are applied in the science of management.
Obviously, management schools provide different approaches to understand and apply the concepts of management science. Each current of the administration wants it to be perfected and more efficient.
In addition, each of these authors dedicated a great deal of time to the development of their studies. These studies have helped the administration evolve and refine. Allowing organizations to better respond to the demands that arise in each changing environment.
Main schools of administration
Among some of the main administrative schools we can mention:
1. Scientific school
To begin with, it is called the scientific school because its main purpose is to be able to apply the scientific method to administrative problems. For this reason, observation and measurement are the main methods used to solve administrative problems.
Likewise, its purpose is to improve the productivity of the company by applying the principle of the division of labor and specialization. For this, studies on times, movements and specialization are taken into account. Which allows better use of resources.
It is also hoped to improve work efficiency using the salary improvements. Frederick Taylor is considered the forerunner and father of scientific management. It emerged in the United States in 1903.
2. Bureaucratic school
Now, the bureaucratic school was based on the rational behavior of man to achieve the objectives. For this reason, it postulates that bureaucracy allows the achievement of efficiency in organizations. The administration is presented as a hierarchical structure.
Of course, this structure is based on the fact that orders must be implemented in writing. So that these detail all the actions, functions and routines that each employee must develop to achieve efficiency in the operation of the organization.
Similarly, these orders are required to be generated in advance and well detailed so that they clearly convey how things should be done. Its main representative and founder is Max Weber. It emerged in Germany in 1905.
3. Classical school
For its part, this school proposes to divide the administrative process into well-structured functions. These functions are planning, direction, organization and control. This school established the 14 principles of administration.
Indeed, it originated in France in 1916. Its main exponent is Henry Fayol and it is also known as the school of administrative process.
4. Humanist school
On the other hand, this school is known as the school of human relations. Since the human resource and its relationships become an important factor for the study of administration. It considers that the motivation and recognition of workers by management influence work productivity.
It should be noted that this school gives priority to human resources as the most important part of an organization. It receives contributions from sociologists and psychologists, so studies on human behavior and group behavior are being applied within organizations. Giving rise to industrial and organizational psychology.
Naturally, the most recognized exponent of this school is Elton Mayo. Since he made great contributions in the study of human behavior and social relations within organizations. Above all, it generated proposals that established that, if the level of well-being of the personnel was improved, productivity could be increased. It began in the United States in 1932.
5. School of behavior
Whereas, the school of behavior takes human needs as the main factor to motivate man’s behavior. Applied to administration, it is postulated that in order to motivate workers it is necessary that their needs be satisfied through work.
Indeed, he was born in the United States in 1950. His highest representative is Abraham Maslow. Maslow proposed the pyramid of the hierarchy of needs. In this pyramid, physiological needs are placed at the base, if the company offers adequate salaries, the employee covers their basic needs. Then there is the need for security, this is covered by giving job stability. Next appears the affiliation and esteem, which is satisfied with the participation and acceptance in the work group. Finally, self-realization is fulfilled when people develop all their potentialities at work.
6. School of contingency
Generally, the school of contingency is known as decision theory. Since it seeks to respond to the daily situations that affect a company, an institution or a group of people who seek to achieve a common goal.
Of course, the idea is to be able to make the best decisions to make the best use of resources. As a consequence, better results are achieved, both in the short and long term. Organizations are considered as open systems.
Similarly, it began in 1980 in the United States. Among its main exponents are Fred Fiedler, William Dill, William Starbuck, James Thompson, Paul Lawrence, Jay Lorsch and Tom Burns.
7. Mathematical school
It can be inferred that the mathematical school of administration considers organizations as logical units, in which mathematical principles can be applied for decision-making. Its objective is to give objectivity to administrative decisions.
At the same time, mathematics is applied to solve administrative problems. Considering that everything can be measured and quantified if you have the necessary data. Therefore, logic and calculation are used in planning and organizing tasks.
For this reason, its greatest exponents are Herbert A. Simon, Igor H, Ansoff, Leonard Arnoff, West Churchman and Kenneth Boulding. It originated in England during World War II.
8. Neoclassical school
Finally, the neoclassical school presents an eclectic vision of administration. It states that the administrative process must be applied in accordance with the customs and traditions learned from the past. He considers that both formal and informal organizations seek to achieve their objectives in a rational way.
Quite simply, its purpose is to avoid making mistakes based on past learning. It is eclectic because it includes knowledge and principles from various management theories. All of these together form a general understanding of managerial thinking.
Precisely, its main representative is Peter Drucker, considered one of the greatest exponents of contemporary administration. It begins in the year 1954.
In closing, let’s say that all these schools of administration have helped to better understand administrative concepts and their application process. Achieving better performance in organizations that have learned to make better decisions to make the best use of their resources.